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How to Choose the Right Language for an IoT Project?

With smart devices that allow less human input and more machine output, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become much more realistic. Smart home hubs, connected cars, and smart retail are already a reality.

In fact, many industries consider IoT development to enhance the functionality of the products they offer.

The purpose of IoT is to collect and analyze data to provide a better customer experience and improve product quality. In other words, it is supposed to make our cities, homes, and businesses work better.

When building an IoT product, one of the most important decisions companies must make is choosing a relevant programming language.

In this article, we will cover the top IoT development languages and provide tips on choosing the right programming language for your IoT project.

10 Programming Languages for IoT Development in 2023

In 2023, the landscape of programming languages for IoT development continues to evolve. Each language has its own features, advantages, and limitations.

Let’s explore some of the prominent programming languages commonly used for IoT development:

How to Choose the Right Language for an IoT Project


This language has many well-known advantages, and portability is the key one.

The best part of working with a Java web development company on IoT projects is that Java IoT engineers can write and debug code on their work computers and then move it to any chip using a Java Virtual Machine.

Therefore, developers can run the code on the smallest machines and not just on smartphones and servers where JVMs are common.

Even though Java may require different libraries to work with specific hardware, the nature of this language may be described as “write once, run anywhere.”

C and C++

Java isn’t the only popular programming language in IoT software development. C and C++ are often used for IoT projects for a variety of purposes. For instance, engineers may use the C language with IoT sheets or C++ in embedded IoT systems.

Given that both languages have relatively low energy consumption and advanced flexibility, developers can use them to effectively code for embedded systems that interface with the underlying hardware.


Python’s simplicity and diversity have made it a favored choice for IoT projects. However, its resource-intensive nature might not be suitable for all scenarios, especially those involving low-power devices or applications requiring rapid data processing.

Python’s vast collection of libraries and its simple syntax make development faster and more straightforward. It’s well-suited for IoT applications that prioritize quick prototyping and easy integration with various platforms.

However, its higher memory consumption and slower execution speed compared to languages like C++ might pose challenges for devices with limited computing power.


Today, JavaScript and its frameworks are actively used in IoT software development projects. For example, JavaScript and Node.js may be great for creating and managing public and private IoT systems and networks.

Also, JavaScript has long been used by two microcontrollers, Tessel and Espruino. This may come in handy in cases when there is a need to use low-power microcontrollers such as Espruino or fast microcontrollers with a lot of memory, like Tessel.

Given the fact that both microcontrollers are based on JavaScript, even web developers can easily start working on IoT projects without spending much time learning a new language.


iOS and macOS devices often become parts of IoT systems. Thus, Swift may be a perfect match for IoT projects. For example, if a company wants to build IoT software that is able to interact with an iPad or iPhone, developers will likely choose Swift to create the app.

Developers can also use Apple’s IoT frameworks, such as FaceID, CoreMotion, or HealthKit, to build custom IoT-based hardware with the help of such microcontrollers as Raspberry Pi or Arduino and then combine their products into seamless IoT networks.


The PHP language, which was originally created for web app development, can also be used for IoT development. Today, many IoT developers include PHP in their tech stack.

PHP is one of the most flexible and affordable languages in the world. Also, this language is fast and free, which is highly important because developing IoT applications is costly. Therefore, developers who use PHP can reduce costs and increase the ROI of IoT development.

Now that we know which programming languages are widely used in IoT development, let’s discuss how companies can understand which language is better to choose for an IoT project.


Go, or Golang, is gaining popularity in IoT development due to its efficiency and support for concurrent programming. It makes a great option for projects that require high-performance communication and data processing.

Go’s lightweight design and built-in support for concurrency make it well-suited for IoT applications that demand efficient communication between devices and services.

Its static typing and garbage collection contribute to reliable and predictable performance, addressing many challenges that arise in complex IoT deployments.


Lua’s lightweight nature makes it suitable for embedded systems and IoT devices with constrained resources. It’s often used for scripting within larger applications to add customizability.

Lua’s minimalistic design and small memory footprint make it a natural choice for constrained devices.

Its extensibility and ease of integration with C and C++ code provide developers with the flexibility to create custom behavior for IoT devices while keeping resource usage in check.


Rust is favored for its focus on memory safety and mitigating prevalent programming errors. It’s a strong choice for IoT projects that prioritize security and reliability.

Rust’s ownership and borrowing system provides memory safety without sacrificing performance.

This makes it suitable for IoT applications that deal with sensitive data or safety-critical operations. Rust’s large ecosystem of libraries and frameworks also improves its viability for various IoT scenarios.


ParaSail is a relatively new programming language that focuses on safety and parallelism. While it’s not as widely adopted as other languages on this list, it’s worth considering for projects with stringent safety requirements.

ParaSail’s unique approach to parallel programming and emphasis on safety can benefit IoT projects that require high levels of fault tolerance and concurrency.

Its design aims to minimize the likelihood of errors, making it potentially valuable for applications that demand high reliability.